33 Popolazioni a rischio malarico Approximately 3.3 billion at risk of malaria and 1.2 billion at high risk Total populatio n Africa774 647 586 76% Americas895 137 61 7% Eastern Mediterranean540 295 66 12% Europe887 22 2 0% South-East Asia1,721 1,319 457 27% Western Pacific1,763 888 54 3% World6,581 3,308 1,226 19% Populatio n at any risk Population at high risk High risk (%)
44 Il mondo ridisegnato dalla malaria Dorling D Worldmapper. PLoS Med 4 (1), 2007
55 Risorse per lotta alla malaria Africa sub-sahariana, 2005-2012
66 Le zanzariere impregnate di insetticida a lunga durata d'azione Riduzione del 25% della mortalità per chi dorme stabilmente sotto zanzariera impregnata
77 Prevenzione – Disponibilità di zanzariere impregnate di insetticida a lunga durata d'azione Africa – 2004-2013
16 Il vaccino antimalaricio - il ciclo del Plasmodio
17 Prevent infection Reduce clinical disease severity Interrupt transmission Target stage Clinical effect PRE-ERYTHROCYTIC (RTS,S) BLOOD STAGE SEXUAL STAGE I punti di azione dei diversi vaccini antimalarici
21 Take home messages There is no licensed or available malaria vaccine One candidate RTS,S/AS01 is the most advanced, and the first WHO recommendations on use are expected in 2015 Even higher efficacy vaccines are desired and we have 2030 goals for highly effective clinical disease prevention and elimination vaccines Non-vaccine control ↓deaths by 25% to estimated 660,000 over last decade. Emerging drug and insecticide resistance threaten malaria control. New tools are needed. Malaria Vaccine R&D is a very active and exciting area!
23 In viaggio... senza la malaria http://www.iamat.org/disease_details.cfm?id=14 0&gclid=CPSIxtPPmb0CFWfLtAod1AsAIg http://www.who.int/ith/en/ http://www.who.int/topics/malaria/en/
24 Interventi di lotta alla malaria a base comunitaria ------------ The Rapid Access Expansion 2015 project
25 Razionale Impact o facility-based interventions alone fail to impact on child mortality Equity o iCCM example of a strategy to achieve equitable results o HF services are less likely to be accessed by the poor o Opportunity costs > direct costs
26 New findings on disparities Many regions have reduced disparities in under-five mortality between the poorest and the richest except Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Under-five mortality rate has declined among even the poorest in all regions Source: UNICEF analysis based on Pedersen, J., et al., Levels and Trends in Inequity and Child Mortality: Evidence from DHS and MICS surveys', working paper, unpublished, 2013.'
27 C'è una notevole sovrapposizione sintomatologica tra malaria e polmonite I test diagnostici (RDT), se negativi, consentono di escludere la malaria Malaria, polmonite e diarrea sono le cause più frequenti di mortalità post- neonatale UN Child Mortality Report 2010 Razionale per un approccio integrato a malaria, polmonite e diarrea
28 RAcE 2015 - Key elements Award Grant awarded by CIDA in April 2012, CAD 74.5 million 5 year program in 5 countries: Malawi, Mozambique, DRC, Niger, Nigeria (2 states) Selection criteria: high disease burden, enabling policy, commitment by MoH, potential for scale-up; Implemented through NGOs; 2M/country/yr – 3 M/yr in NIgeria (1.5M/state) Objectives 1.Increase access to correct diagnosis, treatment and referrals for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea at the community level 2.Stimulate policy review and regulatory update on disease case management at the community level (WHO comparative advantage)
29 Malawi: 4 districts, 190,359 children; Consortium of 4 NGOs led by SAVE; start April 2013 Mozambique: 4 provinces, 308,000 children; SAVE+MC; April2013 DRC: 7 Health Zones in Tanganika district, 150,000 children; IRC; September 2013 Niger: 4 districts, 230,833 children; World Vision; July 2013 Nigeria: Niger state, 6 LGAs, 162,000 children; Malaria Consortium Abia state: 6 LGAs, 245,000 children: Society for Family Health November 2013
30 Total coverage: 1,286,000 children aged 2-59 months living in "hard to reach" areas, each year, in 5 countries