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1 Push logistics Traditionally, the supply chain was pushed: manufacturers produced goods and "pushed" them through the supply chain, and the customer.

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Presentazione sul tema: "1 Push logistics Traditionally, the supply chain was pushed: manufacturers produced goods and "pushed" them through the supply chain, and the customer."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 1 Push logistics Traditionally, the supply chain was pushed: manufacturers produced goods and "pushed" them through the supply chain, and the customer had no control.

2 2 Pull logistics In a pull environment, a customer's purchase sends replenishment information back through the supply chain from retailer to distributor to manufacturer, so goods are "pulled" through the supply chain.

3 3 Push

4 4 Pull

5 5 The de-coupling point Also called push-pull boundary, where partial products are built up to and where they wait until actual order signals are received to complete the products. The physical flow in a manufacturing process is between "manufacture-to-supply" or inventory-based logistics ("push" logistics) to "manufacture-to-order" or replenishment-based logistics ("pull" logistics). The reliance is shifting from maintaining inventories aimed at approximately satisfy the forecasted demand to an information system insuring, mainly through on- demand that supply matches with demand.

6 6 More integration While a push logistics system involves a limited level of integration between suppliers, manufacturers and distributors, a pull logistics system tries to achieve a higher level of efficiency through integration. Freight flows between components of the supply chain tend to be more frequent and in smaller batches. In addition, the sharing of demand dependant data (such as sales) helps better synchronize supply with demand. Reverse logistics also tends to be better integrated in the system to achieve a higher level of customer service as well as to promote environmental strategies such as recycling.

7 7 Il ciclo di produzione Il ciclo comprende lapprovvigionamento delle materie prime e prodotti intermedi, fino alla distribuzione. Il ciclo è composto di fasi di produzione, che possono essere in parallelo, ma esiste sempre un percorso critico da cui dipende la durata del ciclo.

8 8 La regolazione della produzione con degli stock intermedi fase P 1 fase P 2 richiesta fornitore consegna cliente Stock strat. distribuz. fase P 1 fase P 2 distribuzione richiesta fornitore consegna cliente flusso tirato dagli ordiniflusso spinto dalle previsioni Il flusso della produzione è composto da una parte tirata (pull) dalla domanda e una parte spinta da rigidità tecnica e da considerazioni economiche Flusso produttivo e stock

9 9 Posizione dello stock strategico La produzione in generale necessita di uno o più stock Occorre posizionarli nel ciclo di produzione (supply chain) Sono possibili tre casi in funzione del tempo del ciclo di produzione (P) e del periodo di tempo lead time della consegna dei prodotti al cliente (L)

10 10 Gestione del ciclo di produzione allordine P

11 11 Gestione parziale del ciclo allordine P>L stock teoricamente unico dimensionato sullerrore delle previsioni es. industria auto, tessile, elettronica lead time data dellordine data di ricevimento fase P 1 fase P 2 richiesta fornitore consegna cliente Stock strat. flusso tirato dagli ordiniflusso spinto dalle previsioni distribuz.

12 12 Gestione del ciclo di produzione su previsioni e distribuzione allordine P>L stock in un deposito centrale o regionale dimensionato sulle previsioni di vendita distribuzione e consegna allordine es. industria auto, tessile, elettronica Lead time L data dellordine data di ricevimento fase P 1 fase P 2 richiesta fornitore consegna cliente flusso tirato dagli ordiniflusso spinto dalle previsioni distribuzione con stock strategico

13 13 Posizione e valore dello stock Lo stock a valle delle lavorazioni ha un valore superiore di quello a monte. I prodotti in magazzino valgono di più della somma delle componenti e materie prime di cui sono composti, perché presentano il valore aggiunto della lavorazione. La loro giacenza in magazzino equivale ad un maggiore immobilizzo di capitale.

14 14 Riduzione dei costi delle scorte Rimontare gli stock nella catena logistica ridurre la durata delle fasi a valle lasciando lo stesso lead time spostare alcune operazioni del ciclo a valle dello stock (post manufacturing) sincronizzare i flussi a monte e a valle con i fornitori che riforniscono più volte al giorno le linee (lo stock rimonta sui magazzini dei fornitori)

15 15 Riduzione dei costi delle scorte Ridurre le quantità in stock migliorando le previsioni e le incertezze (la componente dello stock detta di sicurezza); aumentando la frequenza e la regolarità dei rifornimenti

16 16 Ridurre il numero dei modelli La riduzione del numero dei modelli comporta una diminuzione delle scorte in magazzino a parità di sicurezza, cioè maggiore probabilità di poter soddisfare i clienti per la presenza di scorte sufficienti.

17 17 Postponement Build partial products up to a de-coupling point, or push-pull boundary, and wait until actual order signals are received to complete the products Postponement is a business strategy that maximizes possible benefit and minimizes risk by delaying further investment into a product or service until the last moment. It requires fast and accurate information.

18 18 Postponement Benefits Inventory Flexibility (Demand signals) Freight efficiency (Bulk shipping) Cost reductions (Local procurement) Speed (Time-to-market) Legal (Tax & duties, Export regulations)

19 19 Postponement and Forecasting Rules of Forecasting: 1.The closer the event, the better the forecast 2.The less detailed the subject, the greater the accuracy Delay the details so forecasts are accurate

20 20 Bulk Packaging Delayed customer specific packaging Dont have to forecast sales by customer Shortens order-to-delivery window (lead time) Allows efficiency in in-bound transport

21 21 Inventory Pooling Delays differentiation to customer specific inventory Reduces stock and the value of the inventory

22 22 Build – to – Order (BTO) It is the capability to quickly build standard or mass-customized products upon receipt of spontaneous orders without forecasts, inventory, or purchasing delays. These products may be shipped directly to individual customers, to specific stores, or as a response to assemblers pull signals. Similarly, your suppliers may need to use spontaneous BTO to respond to your pull signals, which is a key element of flow manufacturing.

23 23 The BTO advantage Low finished goods (FG) inventory Customizable product Quick delivery Short cash-to-cash cycle Purchase components at last minute

24 24 The BTO disadvantage High manufacturing costs Cant move desktops to China High delivery costs Hard to consolidate last mile

25 25 Functional Products Innovative Products Stable Process Efficiency is king, high integration Postponement, flexible system Evolving Process Decoupling point, dual sourcing Build-to-order, flexible system Demand Uncertainty Supply Uncertainty Low High Low High Strategies with uncertainties

26 26 The new BMW system KOPV Customer-oriented sales and a build-to- order production process KOVP (Kundenorientierter Vertriebs-und Produktionsprozess). The main prerequisites for the realization of KOVP are a flexible production system and an advanced IT-environment.

27 27 The main points Simple online ordering processes at the dealers, the prompt receipt of a binding confirmation of order, flexibility when altering individual customer orders, information on the order status, quick and punctual delivery.

28 28 The BMW Sales Assistant The salesperson illustrates the current BMW offer in a single medium using films, pictures and explanations

29 29 During the Sales Process, a delivery date based on production capacity is available at any time Following the Car Configuration an online check is preferred on whether the order can be build

30 Production sequence set throughout manufacturing Body Shop Assembly Paint shop Start customer order Re-sort BMW-Production System Assembly Start customer order Late order assignment The BMW Production System Body Shop Paint shop Re-sort Component Control frozen horizon

31 Reduction of lead time Ordering Production/Distribution minimum lead time: working days up to now: 9 1 to be: flexibility until 10 days before the delivery date 10 working days 1 day Ordering 4 days Frozen Horizon 2 days Production 2 days Distribution 1 day Hand over


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