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1 La sostenibilità dei sistemi economici (Bruno Amoroso, Sapienza, Roma 2013)

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1 1 La sostenibilità dei sistemi economici (Bruno Amoroso, Sapienza, Roma 2013)

2 2 Lezione 1 FENOMENI, PROCESSI E CONCETTI COMUNITA’ ECONOMIA MERCATI

3 3 PROGRAMMA DELLA LEZIONE MODULO 1: MODULO 1:concetti a) teorie tradizionali b) proposte alternative MODULO 2: MODULO 2: dinamica delle formazioni economico-sociali c) Marx d) Rostow

4 4 MODULO 1a - CONCETTI Approcci tradizionali all ’ economia: Approcci tradizionali all ’ economia: 1. Economia domestica (Aristotele) 2. Economia politica (dal 1615 – Montchrétien) : stato e finanza 3. Economia sociale (dal 1800 in Italia, Polonia e Germania) 4. Economia nazionale (metà Ottocento in Germania) 5. Economia (Alfred Marshall 1890 e neoclassici) 6. Economia politica (dal 1900: marxisti, keynesiani e istituzionalisti)

5 5 MODULO 1a - TEORIE 1. Microeconomia 2. Mesoeconomia PERSONA bisogni aspettative Rapporti affettivi FAMIGLIA Legame sociale ASSOCIAZIONI VICINATO SINDACATI PARTITI solidarietà IMPRESEISTITUZIONI 1 2

6 6 Modulo 1a - TEORIE 3. Macroeconomia sistemi e mercati nazionali sistemi e mercati nazionali sistemi e economie mondo (mesoregioni) sistemi e economie mondo (mesoregioni) sistemi e economia mondiale sistemi e economia mondiale

7 7 MODULO 1a - TEORIE R & SPRODUZIONEESPORTAZIONE FASE 2FASE 1FASE 3

8 8 MODULO 1a - TEORIE Recenti approcci all’innovazione: 1. Società post-industriale: innovazione di processo e innovazione di prodotto 2. Innovazione di sistema e di rete 3. Tecnologie multidimensionali 4. Flessibilità

9 9 MODULO 1a - TEORIE Il rapporto complesso tra innovazione e esportazione Univesità e Privata R & S Qualificazioni Moltiplicatore tecnologico Qualificazioni Training, esperienze Matrice moltiplicatore R & S Pubblica Fornitori esterni Credito e finanza Esportazione Licenze e brevetti PRODUZIONE

10 10 MODULO 1b - TEORIE Alternative all’economia: 1. Economia sociale (Caffè), 2. Economia civile (Zamagni), 3. Economia associativa (F. Archibugi), 4. Economia di senso (Magnoni), 5. Economia della felicità (Becchetti). 6. Economia del Bene comune (Amoroso)

11 11 MODULO 2 - DINAMICA DELLE FORMAZIONI ECONOMICO-SOCIALI Obiettivi, strumenti, e valori Obiettivi, strumenti, e valori Obiettivi e comunità: similarità e differenze Obiettivi e comunità: similarità e differenze Il valore della diversità Il valore della diversità Dinamica lineare o policentrica Dinamica lineare o policentrica Marx e Rostow: Il problema del dualismo nelle società Marx e Rostow: Il problema del dualismo nelle società

12 12 MARX E LA DINAMICA DELLE FORMAZIONI ECONOMICO- SOCIALI (Melotti) Comunità primitiva Mondo classico Mondo feudale Società borghese Società socialista Mondo classico Mondo feudale Società borghese Mondo asiatico Comunità primitiva Mondo asiatico Mondo classico Mondo feudale Società borghese Società socialista

13 13 MODELLO DI ROSTOW: UN MANIFESTO ANTICOMUNISTA Società tradizionale Prima del decollo Decollo (take-off) Stadio della mturità Consumo di massa Sottosviluppo: bassa tecnologia e produttività. Valori tradizionali Effetto di dimostrazione /colonizzazione e intrusione culturale Punto di inizio dello sviluppo. Ilmiracolo economico Lamodernizzazione dellasocietà e l’affermazione dell’homo oeconomicus La produzione di massa (Fordismo) e consumo di massa

14 14 Nuova sintesi- la sostenibilità MODO DI PRODUZIONE ISTITUZIONI FORME DI MERCATO MODO DI PRODUZIONE ISTITUZIONI FORME DI MERCATO Comunità originaria Schiavitù mondo Asiatico tedesco classico Mondo feudale Società borghese Società socialista Comunità di famiglia e villaggio Distretti di comunità Autorità regionali Stato-nazionale Coop.mesoregionale Locale Distetto Regionale Nationale Mercati regionalit CURRENT STAGE IN WESTERN COUNTRIES Capitalismo triadico Organizzazioni Transnationali Internazionali, Lobbies Mercato globale POLYCENTRIC APPROACH Comunità/stato nazionale Organizzazioni meso-regionali E istituzioni nazionali Meso-regioni e Mercatomondiale

15 15 F. Braudel: STORIA, MERCATO E CAPITALISMO La ”grande trasformazione” in Europa capitalismo mercato Vita materiale

16 16 Altre teorie: Dualismo (Myrdal, Fuà, Keynes, Kapp, Piore & Sabel) Dualismo (Myrdal, Fuà, Keynes, Kapp, Piore & Sabel) Dipendenza (Frank, Arrighi, ) Dipendenza (Frank, Arrighi, ) Autosufficienza (Ghandi, Mao, Kim Il Sung) Autosufficienza (Ghandi, Mao, Kim Il Sung) Delinking (Amin) Delinking (Amin) Nuovo regionalismo Nuovo regionalismo Economie mondo (Braudel, Wallerstein) Economie mondo (Braudel, Wallerstein) Policentrismo e meso-regioni(Amoroso) Policentrismo e meso-regioni(Amoroso)

17 17 Il Primo Diamante del Policentrismo TERRITORIO SISTEMI PRODUTTIVIISTITUZIONI POPOLAZIONE

18 18 Il Secondo Diamante del Policentrismo POLITICHE DI USO SOSTENIBILE DEL TERRITORIO A LIVELLO LOCALE E REGIONALE COOPERAZIONE ORIZZONTALE TRA UTORITÁ PUBBLICHE ONG, UNIVERSITÁ SERVIZI E INFRASTRUTTURE RISTRUTTURAZIONE DEI SISTEMI EDUCATIVIVI

19 19 Il Mercato capitalistico e policentrismo ECONOMIA CAPITALISTA POLICENTRISMO -Variabili indipendenti- Variabili indipendenti Sistemi produttivi Bisogni - Capitale - Occupazione - Tecnologie - Sistemi di welfare - Migrationi - Risorse naturali - Variabli dipendenti - Variabili dipendenti Bisogni Sistemi produttivi - Occupazione - Capitale - Sistemi di welfare - Tecnologie - Migrazioni - Risorse naturali

20 20 Lecture 2. ECONOMIE MONDIALI E CAPITALISMO  Strumenti teorici e processi reali  La globalizzazione dell ’ economia e delle tecnologie

21 21 Processi d ’ internazionalizzione NORD SUD Internazionalizzazione (trend ottimale) mercantilismo schiavitù colonialismo imperialismo globalizzazione universalizzazione mondializzazione (trend reali) xvi-xviii sec. xvi-xvii sec. xvi-xx sec. xix-xx sec. xx-xxi sec.

22 22 GLOBALIZZAZIONE CAPITALISTICA GLOBALIZZAZIONE CAPITALISTICA Economia Economia Anni Settanta: Anni Settanta: DA: Fordismo & Corporativismo, A: Post-Fordismo & Specializzazione Flessibile Anni Ottanta Anni Ottanta Monetarismo e Neo-liberismo ”Caduta del Muro” ”Caduta del Muro” Anni Novanta Anni Novanta Società della conoscenza Apartheid Globale, Kyoto, etc. Anni Duemila Anni Duemila Geopolitica e Geoeconomia Statunitense Instituzioni Instituzioni Anni Settanta Anni Settanta La crisi dello Stato del Benessere Anni Ottanta Anni Ottanta Dalla Società del benessere (Welfare) alla Società del lavoro (Workfare) Anni Novanta Anni Novanta Capitalismo Triadico Anni Duemila Anni Duemila Dallo Stato del lavoro (Workfare) allo Stato di guerra Il risveglio dell’India (Cina e India)

23 23 The Triad Power The Triad impact on: The Triad impact on: TNCs TNCs FDI FDI WORLD TRADE WORLD TRADE GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT S& T S& T INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS REGIONAL INTEGRATION REGIONAL INTEGRATION

24 24 Investimenti nella Triade U.S. European Union Japan ,8 In milliardi di USD 4,5 0,2 0,3 3,7 1,3 U.S. European Union Japan ,8 11,1 0,9 0,3 20,2 9,6

25 25 Dal dualismo alla marginalizzazione Marginalizzazione è lanuova forma di discriminizzazione introdotta dal Capitalismo Triadico Marginalizzazione è lanuova forma di discriminizzazione introdotta dal Capitalismo Triadico DUALISMO = Dipendenza sociale e economica DUALISMO = Dipendenza sociale e economica MARGINALIZzazione = Esclusione MARGINALIZzazione = Esclusione The countries that were reacting to this process by establishing antagonist economic and political centers were destabilized politically…for example Argentina and Brazil in the 1980s, South Korea and Japan in the 1990s, Yugoslavia and Iraq in the late 1990s…and so on… The countries that were reacting to this process by establishing antagonist economic and political centers were destabilized politically…for example Argentina and Brazil in the 1980s, South Korea and Japan in the 1990s, Yugoslavia and Iraq in the late 1990s…and so on…

26 26 SISTEMI, AUTORI e ACTORS MODO DI PRODUZIONE SISTEMI DI PRODUZI ONE MERCATOAUTORIATTORIPRODOTTI GLOBA LIZZAZ IONE Capitalismo Triadico Società delle Reti e della conoscenza Globale 800 millioni di persone Transanazio nali (TNCs) WTO (OMC) WB (BM) IMF (FMI) GlobaliStandardIntegrazione UNIVE RSALIZ ZAZIO NE Non- profit e cooperative Network, cooperative and international oriented Mondiale per 7 miliardi di persone ONG, e movimenti della società civile Governi nazionali e UN, UNDP, UNICEF, UNESCO,ILO, etc.) Diritti Internazionali e protezione delle minoranze MONDI ALIZZA ZIONE Mercati Locali, Nazionali e Meso-Regionali ; Economie miste e pianificate Meso- Regional, national and local Mercati Meso, nationale e locale Mesoregion aal, national and local institutions Multinational, national and local enterprises Standard Meso- regionali, nationali e regionali INTER NATIO NALIZ ZAZIO NE Capitalismo e socialismo. Mercato, Economie miste e di Piano Nationale Regionale e Locale Nationale, Regionale e Locale Autorità Nationale, Regionale e Locale Nationali e PMI Standard Nationali e locali di protection

27 27 GLOBALIZZAZIONE CAPITALISTICA GLOBALIZZAZIONE CAPITALISTICA Economia Economia Anni Settanta: Anni Settanta: DA: Fordismo & Corporativismo, A: Post-Fordismo & Specializzazione Flessibile Anni Ottanta Anni Ottanta Monetarismo e Neo-liberismo ”Caduta del Muro” ”Caduta del Muro” Anni Novanta Anni Novanta Società della conoscenza Apartheid Globale, Kyoto, etc. Anni Duemila Anni Duemila Geopolitica e Geoeconomia Statunitense Instituzioni Instituzioni Anni Settanta Anni Settanta La crisi dello Stato del Benessere Anni Ottanta Anni Ottanta Dalla Società del benessere (Welfare) alla Società del lavoro (Workfare) Anni Novanta Anni Novanta Capitalismo Triadico Anni Duemila Anni Duemila Dallo Stato del lavoro (Workfare) allo Stato di guerra Il risveglio dell’India (Cina e India)

28 28 Negli anni Ottanta la retorica della competitività tra Stati Uniti, Unione Europea e Giappone si afferma Scienza, tecnologia e istruzione sono subordinate agli obiettivi della competizione. Scienza, tecnologia e istruzione sono subordinate agli obiettivi della competizione. Gli SU costruiscono l ’ dea del Made in America su high-tech e conoscenza (la Società della conoscenza) Gli SU costruiscono l ’ dea del Made in America su high-tech e conoscenza (la Società della conoscenza) L ’ UE insegue questa strategia e formalizza gli obiettivi della competitività, tecnologia e societàdella conoscenza nei suoi Trattati (Lisbona, ecc.) L ’ UE insegue questa strategia e formalizza gli obiettivi della competitività, tecnologia e societàdella conoscenza nei suoi Trattati (Lisbona, ecc.) IlGiappone investe per divenire la prima società dell ’ informazione nelmondo. IlGiappone investe per divenire la prima società dell ’ informazione nelmondo.

29 29 MARKET SATURATION Strategies to overcome it MOVING TO FOREIGN EMERGING MARKETS INNOVATION IN TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND HYBRIDATION TERRITORIAL RELOCATION IMPROVING TECHNOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE IN -Information and Communication Technology -Transport Technology -Energy Technology GROWING STRATEGIC ALLIANCES IN R&D AND TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED COMPETITIVENESS AMONG USA, EUROPE and JAPAN WINNING GREATER SHARES IN EXISTING MARKETS PRIVATISING PUBLIC SECTOR TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION to -Reduce prices -Improve quality -Increase variety -Enhance flexibility PRESSURE IN FAVOUR OF - GLOBAL MARKET - LIBERALIZATION - ECONOMY DEREGULATION - ALL SECTORS PRIVATISATION INCREASED R&D COSTS FOR INNOVATION AND GROWING DEPENDANCE OF FINANCE PRESSURE FOR SHORT TERM HIGH CAPITAL PROFITABILITY GLOBALIZA- TION OF FINANCE AND CAPITAL MARKETS FINANCE OVER POLITICS SUBSTITUTION OF EXISTING PROCESSES, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES (Rationalisation, unemployment) SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN PRODUCTIVITY GAINS REDISTRIBUTION: - Less income to workers & employees - Less fiscal revenues to the state -More dividends to shareholders - More investments in innovation and financial capital From A,B,C B A C The role of technological innovation in a global market capitalism driven society. The years

30 30 La logica della sostituzione In una economia della sopravvivenza le imprese devono competere sugli stessi prodotti e servizi nello stesso mercato: 1) Sui PREZZI (tecnologia per ridurre i costi) 2) Sulla QUALITA’ (technologie per aumento della produttività) 3) Sulla VARIETA’ (technologie per la diversificazione dei prodotti) 4) Sulla FLESSIBILITA’ (technologie per migliorare la gestione della produzione edei servizi)

31 31 La logica dell ’ espropriazione: sostituisce la logica del profitto con quella della “ rendita ” (finanza) e delle “ tangenti ” (copyright) Espropriazione della conoscenza e delle risorse (biopiracy) brevettando ad esempio le biodiversità… Espropriazione della conoscenza e delle risorse (biopiracy) brevettando ad esempio le biodiversità… Durante migliaia di anni latribu africana dei San si è alimentata e dissetata mediante l ’ uso del catus Hoodia che aveva laproprietàdi ridurre ilbisogno di mangiare e di bere. Ma nel 1998 il Consiglio Scientifico del Sud Africa, seguito nel 2002 dalla Gran Bretagna, hanno brevettato il P37, una sostanza contenuta nell ’ Hoodia, che elimina l ’ appetito.utilizzandola per la cura dell ’ obesità. Il brevetto è stato rivenduto alla società farmaceutica statunitense per la produzione di pillole. Durante migliaia di anni latribu africana dei San si è alimentata e dissetata mediante l ’ uso del catus Hoodia che aveva laproprietàdi ridurre ilbisogno di mangiare e di bere. Ma nel 1998 il Consiglio Scientifico del Sud Africa, seguito nel 2002 dalla Gran Bretagna, hanno brevettato il P37, una sostanza contenuta nell ’ Hoodia, che elimina l ’ appetito.utilizzandola per la cura dell ’ obesità. Il brevetto è stato rivenduto alla società farmaceutica statunitense per la produzione di pillole. In questo scambio di affari le società dimenticarono di informare le tribu ’ africane che stavano brevettando e rivendendo conoscenze da queste scoperte e praticate da millenni. In questo scambio di affari le società dimenticarono di informare le tribu ’ africane che stavano brevettando e rivendendo conoscenze da queste scoperte e praticate da millenni. Dopo una dura lotta di decenni I San ricevono oggi meno dello0.003% - della vendita netta di questi prodotti.. Dopo una dura lotta di decenni I San ricevono oggi meno dello0.003% - della vendita netta di questi prodotti..

32 32 Pochi grandi corporazioni dell ’ Occidente hanno oggi il monopolio sullo fruttamento di questi prodotti: Monsanto Monsanto Novartis Novartis Merckx Merckx Glaxo Glaxo Shell Shell Philip Morris, etc. Philip Morris, etc. Ricercano e sfruttano la maggior parte della biomassa esistente nel mondo (il 92% della quale nei paesi del Sud)

33 33

34 34

35 35 Access…

36 36 Access/or influence

37 37 RICERCA DELLE ALTERNATIVE Sostituire il principio di sostituzione ed espropriazione con quelli di: Co-esistenza: accesso alle comuni infrastrutture fisiche e sociali. (rispetto della diversità) Co-esistenza: accesso alle comuni infrastrutture fisiche e sociali. (rispetto della diversità) Co-sviluppo: condividere i comuni obiettivi dello sviluppo senzamettere a rischio gli obiettivi di altri gruppi sociali (ridurre le spese militari) Co-sviluppo: condividere i comuni obiettivi dello sviluppo senzamettere a rischio gli obiettivi di altri gruppi sociali (ridurre le spese militari) Co-determinatione: participazione nella scelta delle priorità e nell’uso delle risorse esistenti rispettando il diritto alla sovranità delle comunità (paesi). Promozione del dialogo dialogico tra comunità e paesi rinunciando a forme di imposizione diretta omediata comenelcaso della governance o dei richiami al “diritto internazionale”. Co-determinatione: participazione nella scelta delle priorità e nell’uso delle risorse esistenti rispettando il diritto alla sovranità delle comunità (paesi). Promozione del dialogo dialogico tra comunità e paesi rinunciando a forme di imposizione diretta omediata comenelcaso della governance o dei richiami al “diritto internazionale”.

38 38 The aim of lecture 5 is: To understand the historical transformation of the capitalist enterprise To understand the historical transformation of the capitalist enterprise To understand the role of the transnational corporations in the global economy To understand the role of the transnational corporations in the global economy

39 39 Stage 1: firm at local level MANAGEMENT R&D DISTRIBUTIONPRODUCTION FINANCE Every function is internalized

40 40 THE LOCAL FIRM IN A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE The local enterprise is part and belongs to the local production system, it uses: local resources local resources local customs and rules local customs and rules and it is concerned with the satisfaction of local needs and it is concerned with the satisfaction of local needs The artisan is the central figure The artisan is the central figure It is ‘ between ’ the formal and informal sector Formal:the market - commercialized relations - hired labor Formal:the market - commercialized relations - hired labor Informal:the family - the exchange of services - uncompensated labor Informal:the family - the exchange of services - uncompensated labor Areas in which there has been the concentration of this type of productive fabric has been lately called INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS Areas in which there has been the concentration of this type of productive fabric has been lately called INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS

41 41 MANAGEMENT R&D DISTRIBUTIONPRODUCTION FINANCE Stage 2: firm at national and international level These functions are externalized

42 42 THE NATIONAL CAPITALIST FIRM Change to its advantage the market ’ s rules, the commoditization of the relations governing output, the fulfillment of needs through consumption Change to its advantage the market ’ s rules, the commoditization of the relations governing output, the fulfillment of needs through consumption The internal division of labor increases The internal division of labor increases The capitalist entrepreneur is the central figure The capitalist entrepreneur is the central figure THE NATIONAL CAPITALIST FIRM is the result of the formation of the national markets THE NATIONAL CAPITALIST FIRM is the result of the formation of the national markets Split between community life and production system Split between community life and production system The national market is very different from the local market The national market is very different from the local market There is the invasion of local markets by firms that are both internal and external to them There is the invasion of local markets by firms that are both internal and external to them Enhanced competition changes the structure of the political powers Enhanced competition changes the structure of the political powers

43 43 FROMNATIONAL TO INTERNATIONAL Competition produces an homologation of the local communities embodied in the national market to the economic, political and cultural principles held to be advanced and coincident with the dominant companies (cultural hegemony – A. Gramsci) Competition produces an homologation of the local communities embodied in the national market to the economic, political and cultural principles held to be advanced and coincident with the dominant companies (cultural hegemony – A. Gramsci) The enlargement of the activities of the firm will create new forms of monopoly, industrial alliances and political privileges, limiting competition The enlargement of the activities of the firm will create new forms of monopoly, industrial alliances and political privileges, limiting competition The enlargement of the activities brings also to a surplus that is exported: the firm internationalizes The enlargement of the activities brings also to a surplus that is exported: the firm internationalizes

44 44 What is a Multinational Firm ? According to Buckley and Casson (1976, 1991): An MNE may be defined as an enterprise which owns and controls activities in different countries or is an enterprise which owns and controls assets in more than one country (Casson 1979) or, according to Caves (1982) a firm with at least one production subsidiary abroad. The origin of the firm is still distinguishable by its national origins. But, production systems and local markets are further separated and raw material sources and sales outlets are fragmented Implications for: The PLANNING of the national economy The PLANNING of the national economy The POLITICAL control on production The POLITICAL control on production The reduction of the role of TRADE UNIONS The reduction of the role of TRADE UNIONS

45 45 MANAGEMENT R&D DISTRIBUZIONEPRODUZIONE FINANZA Stage 3: Livello transnazionale externalizzata Si verifica la definitiva separazione tra territorio, sistema produttivo, instituzioni e popolazione

46 46

47 47

48 48

49 49 Of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations; only 49 are countries (based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs). Of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations; only 49 are countries (based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs). The Top 200 corporations' sales are growing at a faster rate than overall global economic activity. Between 1983 and 1999, their combined sales grew from the equivalent of 25.0 percent to 27.5 percent of World GDP. The Top 200 corporations' sales are growing at a faster rate than overall global economic activity. Between 1983 and 1999, their combined sales grew from the equivalent of 25.0 percent to 27.5 percent of World GDP. The Top 200 corporations' combined sales are bigger than the combined economies of all countries minus the biggest 10. The Top 200 corporations' combined sales are bigger than the combined economies of all countries minus the biggest 10. The Top 200s' combined sales are 18 times the size of the combined annual income of the 1.2 billion people (24 percent of the total world population) living in ''severe'' poverty (less than 1 USD/day). The Top 200s' combined sales are 18 times the size of the combined annual income of the 1.2 billion people (24 percent of the total world population) living in ''severe'' poverty (less than 1 USD/day). While the sales of the Top 200 are the equivalent of 27.5 percent of world economic activity, they employ only 0.78 percent of the world's workforce. While the sales of the Top 200 are the equivalent of 27.5 percent of world economic activity, they employ only 0.78 percent of the world's workforce. Between 1983 and 1999, the profits of the Top 200 firms grew percent, while the number of people they employ grew by only 14.4 percent. Between 1983 and 1999, the profits of the Top 200 firms grew percent, while the number of people they employ grew by only 14.4 percent. The Rise of Corporate Global Power

50 50 A full 5 percent of the Top 200s' corporations combined workforce is employed by Wal-Mart, a company notorious for union-busting and widespread use of part-time workers to avoid paying benefits. A full 5 percent of the Top 200s' corporations combined workforce is employed by Wal-Mart, a company notorious for union-busting and widespread use of part-time workers to avoid paying benefits. The discount retail giant is the top private employer in the world, with 1,140,000 workers, more than twice as many as No. 2, DaimlerChrysler, which employs 466,938. The discount retail giant is the top private employer in the world, with 1,140,000 workers, more than twice as many as No. 2, DaimlerChrysler, which employs 466,938. U.S. corporations dominate the Top 200, with 82 slots (41 percent of the total). Japanese firms are second, with only 41 slots. U.S. corporations dominate the Top 200, with 82 slots (41 percent of the total). Japanese firms are second, with only 41 slots. Of the U.S. corporations on the list, 44 did not pay the full standard 35 percent federal corporate tax rate during the period Of the U.S. corporations on the list, 44 did not pay the full standard 35 percent federal corporate tax rate during the period Seven of the firms actually paid less than zero in federal income taxes in 1998 (because of rebates). These include: Texaco, Chevron, PepsiCo, Enron, Worldcom, McKesson and the world's biggest corporation General Motors. Seven of the firms actually paid less than zero in federal income taxes in 1998 (because of rebates). These include: Texaco, Chevron, PepsiCo, Enron, Worldcom, McKesson and the world's biggest corporation General Motors. Between 1983 and 1999, the share of total sales of the Top 200 made up by service sector corporations increased from 33.8 percent to 46.7 percent. Gains were particularly evident in financial services and telecommunications sectors, in which most countries have pursued deregulation. Between 1983 and 1999, the share of total sales of the Top 200 made up by service sector corporations increased from 33.8 percent to 46.7 percent. Gains were particularly evident in financial services and telecommunications sectors, in which most countries have pursued deregulation. The Rise of Corporate Global Power

51 51 How does the modern transnational enterprises operate? 1. De-localization -through foreign direct investments; 2. De-centralization -through international networks of production- which are not necessarily in a foreign country.

52 52 Example of Nike Shoe Company Nike employs approximately 23,000 people worldwide Nike employs approximately 23,000 people worldwide There are approximately 12,000 Nike employees in the United States There are approximately 12,000 Nike employees in the United States There are approximately 109 apparel contract factories and 12 equipment contract factories in the U.S., providing more than 13,000 jobs to local communities. There are approximately 109 apparel contract factories and 12 equipment contract factories in the U.S., providing more than 13,000 jobs to local communities. In FY'01, approximately 14% of Nike apparel (shoe) was made in the U.S. The remainder is manufactured by independent contractors located in 33 countries In FY'01, approximately 14% of Nike apparel (shoe) was made in the U.S. The remainder is manufactured by independent contractors located in 33 countries Revenue FY'03: Nike reported revenues of $10.7 billion (10 times the GDP of Mongolia) Revenue FY'03: Nike reported revenues of $10.7 billion (10 times the GDP of Mongolia) Including manufacturers, shippers, retailers and service providers, nearly one million people help bring Nike to athletes everywhere Including manufacturers, shippers, retailers and service providers, nearly one million people help bring Nike to athletes everywhere Some 40% of all Nike shoes are made in China Some 40% of all Nike shoes are made in China Nike has 59 factory suppliers in China Nike has 59 factory suppliers in China

53 53 Example of Wal-Mart $220 billion a year (more in revenues than the entire GDP of Israel and Ireland combined). $220 billion a year (more in revenues than the entire GDP of Israel and Ireland combined). The owner S. Robson Walton is ranked by London ’ s "Rich List 2001" as the wealthiest human on the planet, having sacked up more than $65 billion (£45.3 billion) in personal wealth and topping Bill Gates as No. 1. The owner S. Robson Walton is ranked by London ’ s "Rich List 2001" as the wealthiest human on the planet, having sacked up more than $65 billion (£45.3 billion) in personal wealth and topping Bill Gates as No. 1. Seventy-one percent of the toys sold in the U.S. come from China, and Wal-Mart now sells one out of five of the toys we buy. Seventy-one percent of the toys sold in the U.S. come from China, and Wal-Mart now sells one out of five of the toys we buy. The National Labor Ccommittee interviewed workers in China ’ s Guangdong Province who toil in factories making popular action figures, dolls, and other toys sold at Wal- Mart. The National Labor Ccommittee interviewed workers in China ’ s Guangdong Province who toil in factories making popular action figures, dolls, and other toys sold at Wal- Mart. In "Toys of Misery," a shocking 58-page report that the establishment media ignored, NLC describes: 13- to 16-hour days molding, assembling, and spray-painting toys—8 a.m. to 9 p.m. or even midnight, seven days a week, with 20-hour shifts in peak season. In "Toys of Misery," a shocking 58-page report that the establishment media ignored, NLC describes: 13- to 16-hour days molding, assembling, and spray-painting toys—8 a.m. to 9 p.m. or even midnight, seven days a week, with 20-hour shifts in peak season.

54 54 Even though China ’ s minimum wage is 31 cents an hour—which doesn ’ t begin to cover a person ’ s basic subsistence-level needs—these production workers are paid 13 cents an hour. Even though China ’ s minimum wage is 31 cents an hour—which doesn ’ t begin to cover a person ’ s basic subsistence-level needs—these production workers are paid 13 cents an hour. Workers typically live in squatter shacks, seven feet by seven feet, or jammed in company dorms, with more than a dozen sharing a cubicle costing $1.95 a week for rent. They pay about $5.50 a week for lousy food. They also must pay for their own medical treatment and are fired if they are too ill to work. Workers typically live in squatter shacks, seven feet by seven feet, or jammed in company dorms, with more than a dozen sharing a cubicle costing $1.95 a week for rent. They pay about $5.50 a week for lousy food. They also must pay for their own medical treatment and are fired if they are too ill to work. The work is literally sickening, since there ’ s no health and safety enforcement. Workers have constant headaches and nausea from paint-dust hanging in the air; the indoor temperature tops 100 degrees; protective clothing is a joke; repetitive stress disorders are rampant; and there ’ s no training on the health hazards of handling the plastics, glue, paint thinners, and other solvents in which these workers are immersed every day. The work is literally sickening, since there ’ s no health and safety enforcement. Workers have constant headaches and nausea from paint-dust hanging in the air; the indoor temperature tops 100 degrees; protective clothing is a joke; repetitive stress disorders are rampant; and there ’ s no training on the health hazards of handling the plastics, glue, paint thinners, and other solvents in which these workers are immersed every day.

55 55 Wal-Mart continue… More than 65,000 companies supply the retailer with the stuff on its shelves, and it constantly hammers each supplier about cutting their production costs deeper and deeper in order to get cheaper wholesale prices More than 65,000 companies supply the retailer with the stuff on its shelves, and it constantly hammers each supplier about cutting their production costs deeper and deeper in order to get cheaper wholesale prices Behind this manufactured cheerfulness, however, is the fact that the average employee makes only $15,000 a year for full-time work. Most are denied even this poverty income, for they ’ re held to part-time work. While the company brags that 70% of its workers are full-time, at Wal-Mart "full time" is 28 hours a week, meaning they gross less than $11,000 a year. Behind this manufactured cheerfulness, however, is the fact that the average employee makes only $15,000 a year for full-time work. Most are denied even this poverty income, for they ’ re held to part-time work. While the company brags that 70% of its workers are full-time, at Wal-Mart "full time" is 28 hours a week, meaning they gross less than $11,000 a year. Health-care benefits? Only if you ’ ve been there two years; then the plan hits you with such huge premiums that few can afford it—only 38% of Wal-Marters are covered. Health-care benefits? Only if you ’ ve been there two years; then the plan hits you with such huge premiums that few can afford it—only 38% of Wal-Marters are covered. Thinking union? Get outta here! "Wal-Mart is opposed to unionization," reads a company guidebook for supervisors. Thinking union? Get outta here! "Wal-Mart is opposed to unionization," reads a company guidebook for supervisors. SHENZHEN, China. Most of the 2,100 workers here are poor migrants from the countryside who have come to this industrial hub in southern China for jobs that pay about $120 a month. A sign on the wall reminds them of their expendability in a nation with hundreds of millions of surplus workers: "If you don't work hard today, tomorrow you'll have to try hard to look for a job." SHENZHEN, China. Most of the 2,100 workers here are poor migrants from the countryside who have come to this industrial hub in southern China for jobs that pay about $120 a month. A sign on the wall reminds them of their expendability in a nation with hundreds of millions of surplus workers: "If you don't work hard today, tomorrow you'll have to try hard to look for a job." More than 80 percent of the 6,000 factories in Wal-Mart's worldwide database of suppliers are in China. Wal-Mart estimates it spent $15 billion on Chinese-made products last year, accounting for nearly one-eighth of all Chinese exports to the United States. More than 80 percent of the 6,000 factories in Wal-Mart's worldwide database of suppliers are in China. Wal-Mart estimates it spent $15 billion on Chinese-made products last year, accounting for nearly one-eighth of all Chinese exports to the United States.

56 56 Implications: Cultural Cultural Employment Employment Technology development Technology development Labor standards Labor standards Society at large Society at large

57 57 The aim of lecture 6 is: To understand the current economic and political (dis-)Order To understand the current economic and political (dis-)Order To sum-up the theoretical and analytical dimensions of the previous lectures To sum-up the theoretical and analytical dimensions of the previous lectures To provide the basis for the discussion of the projects and of the theses To provide the basis for the discussion of the projects and of the theses

58 58 1. The crisis of neo-liberal economics 2. From a Triadic to a Multipolar System 3. The rise of U.S. unilateralism 4. The emergence of the forms of resistance to globalization

59 59 1.The crisis of neo-liberal economics. The end of development Growth has not materialized: in the last two decades ( ) the rate of growth has been less than those of the previous decades ( ) in many regions of the world, despite two major oil crises. Growth has not materialized: in the last two decades ( ) the rate of growth has been less than those of the previous decades ( ) in many regions of the world, despite two major oil crises. African countries are those in the worse situation: during they had a 34 per cent growth of GDP in GDP fall of 15 per cent. African countries are those in the worse situation: during they had a 34 per cent growth of GDP in GDP fall of 15 per cent. In the last 20 year development measured with HDI is improving to a lower rate than before 1980 also in rich countries and is becoming negative for some poor countries. China and India are among those that show a stable growth of HDI. In the last 20 year development measured with HDI is improving to a lower rate than before 1980 also in rich countries and is becoming negative for some poor countries. China and India are among those that show a stable growth of HDI. Poverty cannot be studied as a TREND: is the MAGNITUDE of the problem that cannot be accepted Poverty cannot be studied as a TREND: is the MAGNITUDE of the problem that cannot be accepted Economic convergence has not taken place. Income disparity increases with the opening of markets. China is a good example of convergence within localities but divergence along the rural-urban axis. Economic convergence has not taken place. Income disparity increases with the opening of markets. China is a good example of convergence within localities but divergence along the rural-urban axis.

60 60 2. From a Triadic to a Multipolar System The decline of Japan The decline of Japan The crisis of the European Union The crisis of the European Union The American vulnerability (energetic and economic) The American vulnerability (energetic and economic) The rise of BRICs The rise of BRICs

61 61 1. The period The rise of the neo-conservative groups in the U.S. The rise of the neo-conservative groups in the U.S. The Wolfowitz memorandum The Wolfowitz memorandum The pre-emptive strategy of war The pre-emptive strategy of war The desperate need of war The desperate need of war The economy prevails over politics (global market dominance) The economy prevails over politics (global market dominance) 3. The U.S. unilateralism

62 62 4. The emergence of resistance to globalization World Social Forums World Social Forums Independent NGOs Independent NGOs The rise of the political consumer The rise of the political consumer Peace movements Peace movements Social Districts: the community against the multitude of individuals Social Districts: the community against the multitude of individuals

63 63 The 5 False Myths about Globalization 1. Trade 2. Foreign direct investments 3. Flexibility 4. Property Rights 5. Technological change

64 64 1. TRADE Trade has increased but is asymmetrical Trade has increased but is asymmetrical Trade has liberalized but is conditional Trade has liberalized but is conditional Trade remains concentrated within the Triad Trade remains concentrated within the Triad

65 65 2. Foreign direct investments Employment creation is in the low skilled labor intensive sectors Employment creation is in the low skilled labor intensive sectors The worker is not anymore the consumer The worker is not anymore the consumer Technology transfer is limited, but can be pursued Technology transfer is limited, but can be pursued

66 66 3. Flexibility Flexibility in the modern firms has created insecurity Flexibility in the modern firms has created insecurity The Flexible production has created dualism and polarization The Flexible production has created dualism and polarization ‘ Flexibilization ’ (de-centralization and de-localization) has destroyed local communities ‘ Flexibilization ’ (de-centralization and de-localization) has destroyed local communities

67 67 4. Property Rights The diffusion of innovation is limited by tight enforcement of property rights The diffusion of innovation is limited by tight enforcement of property rights Property right systems allowed the expropriation of indigenous knowledge Property right systems allowed the expropriation of indigenous knowledge

68 68 5. Technological change Technological innovation is substituting labor (technology induced unemployment) Technological innovation is substituting labor (technology induced unemployment) Technology is applied in both bad and good ways. But the bad ones prevail. Technology is applied in both bad and good ways. But the bad ones prevail. Technological change served the interested of the richest and strongest lobbies Technological change served the interested of the richest and strongest lobbies Adoption and diffusion of new technologies is not a natural process Adoption and diffusion of new technologies is not a natural process

69 69 The process of diffusion of innovation Innovators Early Adopters Early Majority Laggards Late Majority Number of Adopters Time Rents creation In the 1950s 1960s agricultural economists in the US made studies on the diffusion of hybrid corn Origin Slope Ceiling

70 70 Possible titles for projects/theses: Title: Discuss cases for and against mathematics in economics. Possible Research question: Title: Compare Marxist and Post-keynesian accounts of globalisation. Possible Research question: what is the future of the Nation-State? Title: Statistics or Economic Problems? Possible Research question(s): Why do rates of unemployment differ between US and Europe and between the European countries e.g. Scandinavia vs. Germany, UK and France? Title: Inequality in Rich countries: the case of Denmark. Possible Research question(s): What determines the distribution with regard to the share of profit and wage and with regard to the personal income (represented by the Gini-coefficient)? Give some causal explanations of the development in distribution within the last 30 years in Denmark Title: The Macroeconomic effects of the European Monetary Union. Possible Research question : To what extent would you expect a correlation between the development in the exchange rate and the balance of payments (current account and capital account). What are the economic conditions which should be fulfilled for a well functioning monetary union to be established? To what extent does the Euro- zone conform to these requirements? Title: Trade and financial flows in Asia. Possible Research question : What kind of integration is taking place? Is a regional phenomenon or not? Who benefits? Title: To protect or not protect? Possible Research question : Does property rights foster or hinder innovation? Title: The local impact of transnational corporations: the case of Wal-Mart in China. Possible Research question: What are the benefits of foreign direct investments on the local economy? Title: The disturbing rise of the poor. Possible Research question: Why convergence has not materialized? And where it has? Title: A Changing Global Order. Possible Research question: How important is the exchange rate USD/RMB in the equilibrium between China and USA? Title: Open regionalism vs Meso-regions. Possible Research question: Is the Meso-region an alternative to Globalization? Title: Technology for the people and against the people. Possible Research question: What are the driving forces behind technological progress? Is technology neutral? Title: In search of Global Governance. Actors and Institutions in the Global Economy: Possible Research question: How capitalism has changed in the last 20 years? Who is ruling the global market? Title: Comparing Regional Integration Agreements. Possible Research question: Can self-reliance be achieved today? Title: The economy of Access and the Privatization of the Common Goods. Possible Research question. Is another World possible? How common goods can be managed in the global economy?

71 71 What is to be done next? Prepare for the next workshop a presentation of 3 pages of your project, in which is explained the project field and some of the books and reports you intend to use for it. Prepare for the next workshop a presentation of 3 pages of your project, in which is explained the project field and some of the books and reports you intend to use for it. Date for the workshop for the Master E&A and Socrates students is: Monday 15th March Date for the workshop for the ESST students is: Friday 19th March


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