Neoplastic progression Benign or malignant neoplasms can acquire increasingly aggressive features Most malignant neoplasms arise de novo Neoplasms are thought to be preceded by preneoplastic conditions
Metaplasia an adaptive substitution of one type of adult tissue to another type of adult tissue under stress a more vulnerable type of tissue will be replaced by another more capable of withstanding stress
Dysplasia An abnormality in cell size, appearance, with or without a disorganized growth pattern
Neoplasia A disease of cells characterized by alteration of normal growth regulatory mechanisms growth regulatory mechanisms
Classification-approach Terminology which is used to describe a mass is based on the clinical, gross and microscopic features-which in combination are a reflection of the predicted/expected biologic behavior BenignMalignant ?
Invasion and Metastasis Characteristics that are unique to malignant neoplasms (cancer) The major cause of morbidity and mortality
Cancer Grade Alternate term “tumor grade” (G0-G3) Based on microscopic features (cytology or histology) low grade moderate high
Cancer Stage Reflects degree of spread, for an individual cancer patient Assigned at the time of diagnosis, may be updated as patient progresses T Tumor characteristics NNodal involvement M Metastasis
Ereditá dei tumori Una componente ereditaria é piú o meno facilmente identificable sia per la predisposizione, che per la insorgenza di diversi tipi di tumori; Tumori ereditari: retinoblastoma, adenomatosi familiare del colon, piccola frazione dei tumori mammari/ovarici Tumori familiari: manifestazione familiare di tumori esistenti anche in forma sporadica Sindromi da difetti nel sistema di riparazione del DNA
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