Presentazione sul tema: "Che cosa è l’informatica medica?"— Transcript della presentazione:
1Che cosa è l’informatica medica? Note pages for presentation at IOM.
2Informatica Medica Definizione semplicistica: L'informatica medica è l'applicazione dei calcolatori, delle comunica- zioni e della tecnologia dell'informazione e dei sistemi a tutti i campi della medicinadella cura medica,della formazione medicae della ricerca medica.MF Collen, MEDINFO '80, Tokyo
3Informatica MedicaL'informatica medica è il campo scientifico velocemente in sviluppo … che si occupa:delle risorse,dei dispositivie dei metodi formalizzatiper l'ottimizzazione della registrazione,per la ricerca e l’amministrazione delle informazioni biomediche.per la soluzione dei problemi ela scelta delle alternative decisionali.Edward Shortliffe, M.D., Ph.D. What is medical informatics? Stanford University, 1995.
4Informatica MedicaL'informatica medica è il ramo della scienza interessato dell'uso dei calcolatori edella tecnologia di comunicazione per acquisire, memorizzare, analizzare, comunicare evisualizzare le informazioni e la conoscenza mediche per facilitare la comprensione emigliorare l'esattezza, l'attualità e l'affidabilità delle scelte operative.Warner, Sorenson and Bouhaddou, Knowledge Engineering in Health Informatics, 1997
5L'Informatica della Salute: definizione Tecnologia dell'informazioneSanitàRicercaFormazioneFondamentiComunicazioneAmministrazione della ConoscenzaAusilio decisionaleAmministrazione delle Informazioni ClinicheInformatics is more than information technology, it is the development and application of IT systems to problems in health care, research, and education. (Masys et al., 2000) The fundamentals of informatics include: Comunicazione, knowledge Amministrazione, decision support and the Amministrazione of Informazione Clinica (Scherger, personal Comunicazione), without which clinicians cannot be truly effective. As practitioners attempt to keep abreast of the burgeoning information base – there are nearly 10,000 randomized controlled trials annually – it has become clear, as David Eddy has said, that the complexity of health care “exceeds the inherent limitations of the unaided human mind.” (Millenson, 1997)
6Informatica Medica Amministrazione della Conoscenza Comunicazione Informazione ClinicaHere is a diagram that shows these four areas of Medical Informatics. I will revisit this from time to time to illustrate a point. Currently there are largely stand alone products that fall in one of these areas.ComunicazioneAusilio Decisionale
7Uso di informatica nella sanità ComunicazioneTelemedicinaTele-radiologiadel pazientePresentazioniAmministrazione della ConoscenzaPubblicazioniinformazioni di salute del consumatorele informazioni mediche basate-su-ProveSupporto alla DecisioneSistemi di archiviazioneDiagnosi di Sistemi EspertiInterazione tra farmaciAmministrazione di InformazioneAnnotazioni Mediche ElettronicheTransazioni di fatturazioneSistemi di OrdinazioneIn large part because of the Internet, the information technology landscape in health care has changed in the last five years. The biggest strides that have been made are in the Comunicazione and knowledge Amministrazione arenas and include: health care organizations’ applications of information technology to administrative and financial transactions; a virtual explosion of health-related information available to consumers via the web; and gains in making syntheses of evidence, practice guidelines, and health services research more accessible to health professionals, researchers and patients (2001). And, informatics has begun to be applied in the clinical realm through such applications as reminder systems, telemedicine, tele-radiology, online prescribing, and (2001).Whatever advances have been made in integrating informatics into practice settings, IT innovations have had a modest effect on patient care (2001). Most Informazione Clinica is still stored in paper form (Hagland M., 2001 ) (Staggers et al., 2001), few patients have access to their care givers, most patients do not benefit from even the simplest decision aids, such as patient reminder systems, and an unacceptable number of medical errors occur because there are no information systems in place to process and check the vast amount of clinical data that flows through the system (2001).
8L’Informatica Medica Cambierà la Medicina Amministrazionedella ConoscenzaAmministrazione dellaInformazione ClinicaInformatics applications will have their greatest impact on the quality of patient care and patient safety when in the future applications are merged into one seamless system. Evidence that this trend has begun can be seen in the latest Informazione Clinica systems that include Comunicaziones and decision support as well as knowledge Amministrazione.ComunicazioneAusilio Decisionale
9L’adozione ed acquisizione di tecnologiche Scuola di Medicina The Technology Adoption Life CycleAttività richiestaStato attualeNuovo targetGapL’adozione ed acquisizione di tecnologiche
10Sguardo al Rapporto Del “Salto di Qualità” Infrastruttura standardizzata delle informazioniTeam di sostegno alla cura che aumenta la cura centrata sul pazienteCoordinazione dei sostegni di curaMisurazione dei Risultati -> migliori i risultatiAccresce la sicurezza - riduce gli erroriPermette la misura/monitoraggio della qualità- qualità della rimunerazioneThe authors of the Quality Chasm report believe that, if a substantial improvement in quality is to be achieved over the next decade, informatics must play a central role in the redesign of the health system(2001).The Quality Chasm report envisions priority conditions providing a framework for the development of a standardized information infrastructure, which is a necessary first step. This infrastructure would support the work of care teams and enable organizations to effectively measure outcomes and processes of care, providing them with benchmarks for continuous improvement. Innovations in information systems would enhance safety and the way care is organized, coordinated across settings and time, and delivered (telemedicine, e-health). Standardized information systems would provide the infrastructure for payment methods that reward quality (2001).
11Il Caso di Betsy A. Lehman “How long, oh lord, must this continue? …That’s 11 years ago…isn’t it time that basic computerization be part of the expected, and required, care at medical facilities?”An message posted soon after Boston Globe journalist Betsy Lehman died due to a massive overdose of a powerful anti-cancer farmaco is a powerful case in point. The message was posted by a University of Michigan bioengineer:“How long, Oh Lord, must this continue? In 1974 we had an on-line patient record system that flagged unusual lab results or unusual…prescriptions, and that was at a vet[erans] hospital. That’s 21 years ago…Isn’t it time that basic computerization be part of the expected, and required, care at medical facilities? That humans make 0.1 percent errors on prescriptions may be forgivable; that hospitals don’t take obvious actions to protect themselves and patients, well within state-of-the-art, is not” (Millenson, 1997).
12EPILOGUEBetsy Lehman’s last morning in the hospital in 1995 was the saddest of her entire stay.As David Warsh recounted in the Boston Globe, Betsy was all packed up and ready to return to her husband and children after a harrowing course of chemotherapy for breast cancer at Boston’s Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.A nurse found Betsy "weepy, anxious this a.m. regarding discharge home before she is ready."Betsy phoned a friend, a hospital social worker, but got an answering machine instead.She left a message: "I'm feeling very frightened, very upset.I don't know what's wrong, but something's wrong.An hour later, she was dead.
14Riduzione degli Errori i Sistemi automatici di immissione datiRiducono gli errori dell’atto medicoRilevano le interazioni potenziali del farmacoSistemi di ausilio alle decisioni clinicheMigliorano il dosaggio del farmaco.Migliorano la cura preventivaSi prendono cura dell’assenza di diagnosiMore recently, hospitals are installing or planning to install computerized physician order entry systems, many at the behest of Leapfrog , a group of over 90 purchasers focused on select interventions such as computerized physician order entry systems to enhance quality (Delbanco, 2002). Research has shown that these systems as well as telemedicine, computerized reminder systems and broader based decision support systems can enhance clinician performance and improve patient care (2001). For example, select studies show dramatically reduced medication errors when a physician computer order entry system was put into place (Bates et al., 1998) and similar systems efficiently detected contraindicated farmaco combinations (McMullin et al., 1999). A review of controlled clinical trials assessing clinical decision support systems found enhanced performance for farmaco dosing and preventive care but not convincingly for diagnosis (Hunt et al., 1998).
15Corsi di studio in Informatica sono inseriti in … LaureaBorse di studioCertificatiCorsi breviScuola di medicinaScuole di infermiereScuole di fisioterpistaScuole di sanità pubblicaScuole di odontoiatriaOrganizzazioni sanitarieIn education settings, it is unclear what the extent of informatics training is in both preservice and continuing education realms. Institutions are now offering degrees (master’s and PhDs), fellowships, certificates, and short courses, some through remote learning (American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA), 2002). This training is mostly being offered through medical and nursing schools but also through public health and dental schools as well as through health care organizations, with some town-grown collaborations. One study in both Europe and the U.S. of informatics in academic settings suggests that informatics has not been embraced by nursing to the same extent as medicine (Hovenga, 2000).
16Scuole di Informatica Innovative di Educazione Permanente NYU Medical Center Educational Services DepartmentUniversity of Utah School of NursingUniversity of Sheffield, UKStanford Medical SchoolStanford Center for Advanced Technology in SurgeryItalia ?The following were identified in the literature or through web searches. This is not an exhaustive list. Please review the list to add your own suggestions or modifications.Educational Services Department, New York University Medical Center, NYC NY. The department implemented a multidisciplinary informatics curriculum that includes a menu of offerings that may be adapted to meet the varying skills, needs and schedules of clinicians, basic scientists, residents, and medical, nursing and allied health students. Offerings include workshops in basic computer skills, identification of information resources, the structure of information, developing search strategies in support of evidence-based practice, identifying qualitative journal literature, and critical appraisal of the literature (Faraino, 1998).University of Utah School of Nursing, Salt Lake City. The University has had a nursing informatics program since 1990 which they renamed the clinical informatics program in 1999 in recognition of the growing emphasis on interdisciplinary efforts. The school grants degrees at the master’s and PhD level that focus on informatics.University of Sheffield, UK. They created a virtual classroom in health informatics in 1997 for primary care professionals that use a facilitated discussion list and Web site with on-line resources and an archive of teaching materials. An adult-learning approach encourages participants to identify their learning needs, emphasizes informatics skills in practice, and focuses on skills likely to enhance evidence-based practice. Pre- and post-intervention questionnaires were used to assess perceived skills in informatics and evidence-based practice with participants reporting statistically significant increases in eight informatics skills but no significant changes in evidence-based practice skills (Fox and Bennett, 1998).Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto CA. The university created a highly integrated Web-based technology application -The Stanford Health Information Network for Education (SHINE) – with the goal of meeting the different information needs of physicians and incorporating such information into the clinical decision-making process, while overcoming traditional barriers such as the constraints of the work environment and physician education (Godin et al., 1999).Center for Advanced Technology in Surgery, Stanford University, Palo Alto CA. Over the next ten years, the Center anticipates selecting, training, credentialing, remediating, and recredentialing physicians and surgeons using simulation, virtual reality, and Web-based electronic learning. They anticipate that future physicians will be able to rehearse an operation on a projectable palpable hologram derived from patient-specific data, and deliver the data set of that operation with robotic assistance the next day (Gorman et al., 2000). There is currently a simulator-based curriculum which Stanford developed in conjunction with the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System which has been built upon by other institutions including Harvard Medical School (Robeznieks, 2002).
17Educazione all’uso dell’Informatica Confronto: Tradizionale - ElettronicoRisparmio di faticaSoddisfazioneEducazione MedicaRedditiziaECMAbilità di informaticaAzioni non basate sulle abilità di pratiche individualiMany of the studies identified thus far in the literature seem to focus on comparing traditional education to technology based education such as Internet-based education, educational videos, virtual classrooms, and simulation programs.In nursing, there are select studies focused on how well students retain information delivered through technology aided mediums and their satisfaction with the media (Mallow and Gilje, 1999). With respect to medical education, there are a small number of carefully controlled studies that have shown that computer assisted instruction is both more effective and less costly than traditional forms of education (Masys et al., 2000). There is even less evidence of the effects with respect to continuing education. A study evaluating a virtual informatics classroom for primary care physicians showed that this approach was effective for delivering informatics skills, although it did not result in clinicians’ enhanced evidence based practice skills (Fox and Bennett, 1998).
18Barriere all’Implementazione Tecnologica atteggiamenti e percezioni del gestore del ProgettoSviluppo del ProgettoAccessibilitàdisponibilitàBarriersIn the literature, one important area of study examines barriers or obstacles inhibiting the integration of technology into instruction. Based on the literature and practitioner experience, Leggett & Persichitte (1998) identify five categories of barriers to technology integration: time, expertise, access, resources, and support. They use the TEARS acronym to make these categories more memorable. While this acronym provides a useful mnemonic, important detail is lost in this subsumption and needs elaboration for a full understanding of these barriers.The lack of time is at the top of their list as the obstacle most often mentioned. This includes time to plan, collaborate with peers, prepare lessons and materials, explore, practice, and evaluate, as well as develop, maintain, and expand skills. Other articles also identify time as an important barrier (Adams, 2002; Kagima & Hausafus, 2001).Expertise is another potential barrier to technology integration. Technology training for teachers must be available. Effective technology training must be hands-on, systematic, and ongoing. Additionally, a variety of models and approaches should be available to accommodate different needs, schedules, and learning styles. Adams (2002) found similar barriers related to expertise, such as limited computer training, and Kagima & Hausafus (2001) identified lack of technology competence as a barrier.D. L. Rogers (2000) takes an even stronger position on this barrier. “The weak link in the knowledge infrastructure in most institutions is the skills and training in Information Age tools and processes for learners, faculty, staff, and other participants…. It is imperative that institutions realize that it is not only technology that is important, but also the learning methodologies utilized to employ the technology (p. 21).” She emphasizes that training focusedon both technology use and effective use in instruction is necessary.Access is the third category used by Leggett & Persichitte (1998). Teachers must have uninterrupted, on-demand access to the technologies they intend to use, both while inside and outside of the classroom. Adams (2002) also reported hardware and software availability as a potential barrier.Their fourth category is resources. This includes resources to purchase, maintain, and upgrade hardware and software; to provide training and support; and for auxiliary costs, such as coordinating technology access, and continuing costs, such as purchasing printer ink. They also note a relationship where time, expertise, and access are dependent on resources.Support is their fifth barrier category, both administrative and technical. Administrative leadership and support may be the most critical factor. In addition to providing the needed financial resources, the administration can set expectations, develop a vision and plan for technology integration, and provide incentives and encouragement. Technical support not only includes the personnel for maintaining the technology, but it also includes personnel who are knowledgeable about pedagogical issues, such as appropriate instructional methods or media.P. L. Rogers (2000) identifies similar barriers based on the literature and two studies she conducted: availability and quality of hardware and software, faculty role models, funding, institutional support, models for using technology in instruction, staff development, student learning, teacher attitudes, technical support, and time to learn to use technology. However, she organizes these barriers differently. Some barriers have an internal source, such as a teacher’s attitude or perception about a technology as well as his or her competency with that technology.External barriers include: availability and accessibility of hardware and software, technical and institutional support, and gestione dei fondi development. Time and funding barriers cross internal and external sources.P. L. Rogers (2000) then develops a model for visualizing the relationships among these barriers. As illustrated in Figure 1, gestione dei fondi attitudes and perceptions toward technology, its use in education, and institutional support determine what will be considered. Once these possibilities are established, three external barriers can slow or halt the implementation: availability and access, technical support, and gestione dei fondi development. Also, time and funding affect these three barriers.Supporto TecnicoRogers, P. L. (2000). Barriers to adopting emerging technologies in education. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 22(4),
19Barriere cultutali alla realizzazione della “Vision” Mancanza di risorseCambiamenti di rapporto e di comportamento richiestiVariabilità e mancanza di ricettivitàArgomenti specifici della disciplinaLimitazioni della formazione permanenteRelationship/behavioral changes - New relationships, with all the disruption (including financial) and promise that they offer, would need to be formed between educators and students, between health professionals and institutions, between health professionals and their patients (Kleinke, 2000) (2001) and would require all parties to radically change behaviors (Sinclair and Gardner, 1999).Variability - There is great variability in existing informatics skills among and within schools, students, and health professionals and likely in the receptivity to informatics infusing into the system (2001) (Jwayyed S, 2002).Discipline specific issues - There is disagreement about whether informatics need to be thought about (and taught) in discipline specific ways or approached more generically (Masys et al., 2000) (Mihalas et al., 2000).Resources - Significant resources would be required to equip schools (and health care organizations) with the kind of sophisticated information technology and informatics education envisioned above, although the Internet can provide many efficiencies (2001). There are concerns about the financial effects on schools as more education programs are delivered over the Internet (Lindeman, 2000).Continuing education restrictions - IT offers a way to link continuing education with practice more directly but, in at least continuing medical education, self-initiated learning is not allowed for the majority of physician’s category I CME credit for state licensure (Godin et al., 1999).
20Regolamenti e sbarramenti politici Eccessiva preoccupazione della ‘privacy’Leggi non favorevoliMancanza di mezzi finanziariMancanza di esperienza / scarsa esperienzaMancanza di standardsPrivacy - Consumer and policy maker concerns about privacy of health information. The U.S. lacks national standards for the protection of health data and information (2001).Laws – Those at the state level that govern practice, e.g., scope of practice acts and how they are not set up to regulate telemedicine, and other exchanges of information across state borders (2001). For example, Kaiser Permanente’s role out of a computerized information system that traces clinician ordering and interventions has posed problems due to scope of practice acts and raised liability issues (Chow, 2002).Financial - Payment issues for e-visits and other transactions that do not result in a visit to a clinician’s office (Maddox et al., 2001) (Borowitz and Wyatt, 1998).
21Barriere Interne all’innovazione Adopter Categories Innovators are eager to try new ideas, to the point where their venturesomeness almost becomes an obsession. Innovators’ interest in new ideas leads them out of a local circle of peers and into social relationships more cosmopolite than normal. Usually, innovators have substantial financial resources, and the ability to understand and apply complex technical knowledge. While others may consider the innovator to be rash or daring, it is the hazardous risk-taking that is of salient value to this type of individual. The innovator is also willing to accept the occasional setback when new ideas prove unsuccessful (Rogers, 1971). Early adopters tend to be integrated into the local social system more than innovators. The early adopters are considered to be localites, versus the cosmopolite innovators. People in the early adopter category seem to have the greatest degree of opinion leadership in most social systems. They provide advice and information sought by other adopters about an innovation. Change agents will seek out early adopters to help speed the diffusion process. The early adopter is usually respected by his or her peers and has a reputation for successful and discrete use of new ideas (Rogers, 1971). Members of the early majority category will adopt new ideas just before the average member of a social system. They interact frequently with peers, but are not often found holding leadership positions. As the link between very early adopters and people late to adopt, early majority adopters play an important part in the diffusion process. Their innovation-decision time is relatively longer than innovators and early adopters, since they deliberate some time before completely adopting a new idea. Seldom leading, early majority adopters willingly follow in adopting innovations (Rogers, 1971). The late majority are a skeptical group, adopting new ideas just after the average member of a social system. Their adoption may be borne out of economic necessity and in response to increasing social pressure. They are cautious about innovations, and are reluctant to adopt until most others in their social system do so first. An innovation must definitely have the weight of system norms behind it to convince the late majority. While they may be persuaded about the utility of an innovation, there must be strong pressure from peers to adopt (Rogers, 1971). Laggards are traditionalists and the last to adopt an innovation. Possessing almost no opinion leadership, laggards are localite to the point of being isolates compared to the other adopter categories. They are fixated on the past, and all decisions must be made in terms of previous generations. Individual laggards mainly interact with other traditionalists. An innovation finally adopted by a laggard may already be rendered obsolete by more recent ideas already in use by innovators. Laggards are likely to be suspicious not only of innovations, but of innovators and change agents as well (Rogers, 1971). Rogers, E. M. & Shoemaker, F. F. (1971). Comunicazione of Innovation. New York: The Free Press. Atteggiamenti e percezioni dell’ assegnatarioRogers, E. M. & Shoemaker, F. F. (1971). Comunicazione of Innovation. New York: The Free Press.
22Barriere Esterne in Medicina Mancanza di:Consenso universale sul vocabolario medicoPrincipi e disposizioni standard per i dati di laboratorio, immagini mediche, annotazione medica…Normativa circa le disposizioni mediche emergenti dalla letteratura e di “estratti” strutturatiStandard in sanità – linee guida di riferimento di trattamentoStandards per lo scambio di dati di salute
23Strategie Didattiche Didattica orientata alla soluzione di problemi CompetenzeWord processingReperimento delle informazioniAmministrazione delle InformazioniData analysisPresentationAbilità nella Comunicazione, file transfer, webMany argue that informatics should not be thought of as a single course or set of didactic ideas, but rather as a method of problem solving that facilitates going beyond an individual’s own knowledge base and encourages consulting the “growing body of electronically accessible biomedical knowledge early and often” (Masys et al., 2000). The kinds of informatics competencies identified in the literature include: word processing, information search and retrieval, Amministrazione di Informazione, data analysis, presentation and a whole range of Comunicazione skills including , file transfer, and using the web among other skill (Gilje and Mallow, 1999) (Leino-Kilpi and Saranto, 1997; Gardner and Sinclair, 1999) (Masys et al., 2000) (Saba, 2001).
24AAMC MSOP Progetti Obiettivo per Scuole di Medicina competenze Informatiche per studenti di medicinaIn February 1998 the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) issuedReport I of the Medical School Objectives Project (MSOP). The purposes of the MSOPwere to set forth program level learning objectives that medical school deans andfaculties could use as a guide in reviewing their medical student education programs(initial phase), and to suggest strategies that they might employ in implementingagreed upon changes in those programs (implementation phase). Issuing MSOPReport I concluded the initial phase of the project. That report set forth 30 programlevel learning objectives that represented a consensus within the medical educationcommunity on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students should possessprior to graduation from medical school.This report - MSOP II - is the second of a series of reports that will be issued bythe AAMC during the course of the project. Each of the subsequent reports willaddress a particularly challenging contemporary issue that medical school deans andfaculties must confront in order to align the content of their medical student educationprograms “with evolving societal needs, practice patterns, and scientific developments.”The Medical Informatics Advisory Panel was charged to provide guidance onlearning objectives related to medical informatics. To this end, the panel has developedrecommendations to help ensure that medical school graduates have a foundationin medical informatics that will support them, as physicians in the 21st century,to efficiently utilize increasingly complex information for problem solving anddecision making. The recommendations consist of a set of learning objectivesexpressing the competencies medical schools should help their students attain, aswell as a set of implementation strategies outlining ways schools can develop educationalprograms that address these learning objectives.
25Curriculum Informatico Scrivere e leggere col ComputerWord processingComputer GraphicsEducazione PermanenteFonti MedicheAmministrazione della Informazione ClinicaRicercaData analysisAbilità di Comunicazione, web, presentationEvidence Based MedicineAs a new medical school whose mission is to create 21st century physicians comfortable with technology and aware of the ways that technology can improve patient care, it was decided to include informatics as an integral part of the training. A curriculum taken from the AAMC Medical Schools Objectives project on Informatics (1998) was adopted. Informatics is taught as a part of the Doctoring course, which run throughout the 4 years and includes as well as informatics, clinical skills taught in the biopsychosocial model, such as history taking and physical examination, taught in our clinical learning center, and clinical problem solving and the students preceptor experience. The students get 3-4 workshops per semester. The skills that they learn are coordinated with needs in their other classes. Ie, they are taught PowerPoint just prior to having to do a presentation in their Histology class in the fall of their first years. They are taught Endnote just prior to their need to write a paper for another course in the Spring of their first year.
26Infrastruttura per sostenere programma di studi di informatica. Hardware/SoftwareAzioni di SostegnoFlussi lavorativi / Atteggiamenti Mentali *Corsi di AddestramentoStanziamenti*Passione, visione strategica e mentalità globale: sono queste le caratteristiche fondamentali dei futuri leader del settore industriale
27InfrastruttureOne of the major factors that makes an integrated informatics curriculum possible is the IT infrastructure that we have supporting all of the educational activities across all of our campuses. This diagram illustrates the core technology that supports all courses and clerkships, college wide. Included are a variety of hardware like our technology enhanced classrooms, wireless campus wide network, web, file and exchange servers, and server systems including Avantgo, SQL. Maintaining and supporting all of this is an IT section with a large range of expertise.Early planning allowed us to creat policy and budgets to allow us to standardize on hardware and software for all students and faculty across departments with planned replacement and upgrades. This includes wireless laptops and PDAs for students for all four years, loaded with the latest medical and productivity software. Faculty get either laptops or desktops based on their need to be mobile.Rounding this off is our decision to provide a virtual library to support all sites which Barbara Shearer will discuss, a state of the art Clinical Learning Center, and to utilize the institutionally supported Blackboard Courseware.
28Tecnologia Laptops senza fili per ogni allievo Microsoft Office ProfessionalVerificatore ortografico MedicoEndnotesAdobe PhotoshopMedical ReferencesInfoRetrieverPer ogni studenteEvidence Based Ref.Disease ReferenceMedical CalculatorReferenze farmacol..Medical DictionaryThe CDCS systemComputer LabStudent teachingFaculty development
292003-2004 Passare dal PC al PocketPC Dell Axim InfoRetriever Referenze farmacologiche ePocratesAvantgoPDxMDStedman’s Medical Dictionary
30Mettere mano all’esperienza Amministrazione della conoscenzaAmministrazione dellaInformazione ClinicaOrder entry, EMR, BillingAusilio alle DecisioniComunicazione
31Educazione MedicaSo let’s see what it is like to be a student of medical informatics or a doctor living in the 21st century. Here is a typical basic sciences classroom. Students who normally have a microscope in front of them now have a wireless laptop computer.
32Scienze di Base Anatomy lab video enabled BacusLabs digital web-slide programGold Standard Multimedia*Cross Sectional AnatomyLXR Testing ProgramQuestion bankComputer-based testingItem analysis/gradingUnited Streaming VideosAnatomyHistologyWebPath* Reguires a FSU COM logon and password
34Amministrazione della Conoscenza Knowledge AmministrazioneJournalsConsumer Health informationEvidence-based medical information
35Amministrazione della Conoscenza Biblioteca Medica del 20th SecoloMattoni e mortaiPubblicazioni, libri, manuali di riferimento rapidiPrestiti tra bibliotecheMicrofiche, MicrofilmBiblioteca Medica del 21th Secolo
36Libri, pubblicazioni e manuali StatRefPubmedPDxMDMDConsultDynamedKnowledge AmministrazioneJournalsConsumer Health informationEvidence-based medical information
37Informazione all’Utente Health FinderFamilydoctor.orgMore consumer health websitesButler Health System
38“La Prova” quando la desiderate Cochrane CollaborationInfoRetrieverWebDesktopPDA
39Ausilio decisionale Decision Support Reminder systems Diagnostic Expert Systemsfarmaco Interazione
40Applicazioni tenute in mano ePocrates5 Minute Clinical ConsultMedical CalculatorsProgramma di immunizzazione
42E-mail E-mail riservato e sicuro fra il medico e il paziente
43Sistemi d’Informazione Clinica Amministrazione di InformazioneElectronic Medical RecordsBilling transactionsOrdering Systems
44Sistemi di Informatica Clinica Practice Partner Electronic Medical Record SystemInterazione farmacoAllergy checksInternalIntegrated with billing and appointmentsLinks to knowledge basePatient Education handouts
45Viaggio nell’Ufficio dei Dottori Come acquisire la saggezzaQuale atteggiamento tenereCome gestire le responsabilitàTre lezioni da ricordare
46Lezione # 1. Capire l’ambiente e i fatti Lezione # 1. Capire la vostra comunità
47Lezione # 2. A volte uno sguardo non è sufficiente Aldo Manuzio scelse come marchio della sua impresa un simbolo e una frase che comparivano sulle monete romane del 1° secolo: Festina Lentefelice depressoarrabbiato pensierosoeccitato infeliceCome riconoscere l’umore di un setter irlandese
48La frase festina lente è attribuita a Svetonio. Ma ciò che mi sembra interessante non è tanto l’origine antica, quanto il fatto che sia stata adottata da un grande innova-tore del Rinascimento proprio quando si apriva un nuovo ciclo nei sistemi di co-municazione.Occorre velocità di reazione e flessibilità, capacità di imparare in fretta e di adattarsi continuamente a nuove situazioni e nuovi stimoli.Ma anche molta attenzione, una grande capacità di aspettare; e molta pazienza. Perché i risultati non sono immediati – e non è bene che lo siano.
49Lezione #3. Fornisci informazioni ed utilizza i suggerimenti degli utenti