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Reflusso e Aritmie Dr. Paolo Pieragnoli SOD Aritmologia Firenze.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Reflusso e Aritmie Dr. Paolo Pieragnoli SOD Aritmologia Firenze."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Reflusso e Aritmie Dr. Paolo Pieragnoli SOD Aritmologia Firenze

2 Incidenza e prevalenza della fibrillazione atriale (FA) aumentano con l’aumentare dell’età Epidemiologia Incidenza (n 10 3 /2 anni) Benjamin EJ, et al. JAMA 1994 Uomini Donne Età (anni) Framingham study

3 Prevalenza di fibrillazione atriale per et à e sesso nello Studio ATRIA < >85 Gruppi di età (anni) Prevalenza (%) Uomini Donne Go AS et al, JAMA ,974 soggetti con FA (0.95%) in una popolazione USA (California) di 1.89 milioni di persone Rif

4 AF in the general population 1.6% prevalence of AF in general population (Framingham study, AHJ 1983) 3.2% people aged yrs develop AF during the subsequent 24 years (Framingham study, AHJ 1983) 5.5% people >65 yrs have AF (Furberg, AJC 1994) 41% paroxysmal, 59% chronic (Framingham study, AHJ 1983)

5 Stima dei soggetti con FA (N, milioni) Anno 2040 Stima conservativa – Nessun ulteriore aumento di incidenza Miyasaka Y. Circulation, Stima NON conservativa – Continuo aumento di incidenza

6 Fibrillazione atriale: cause Cardiaca Non cardiaca “Lone” atrial fibrillation

7 “Lone” Atrial Fibrillation The Olmsted County Study. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: Absence of identifiable cardiovascular, pulmonary, or precipitating illness, age <60 yrs 2.7% of patients with atrial fibrillation Mean 15 yrs follow-up 1.3% incidence of stroke 94% survival

8 Fibrillazione atriale: cause cardiache Malattia cardiaca ipertensiva Malattia cardiaca ischemica Malattia cardiaca valvolare – Reumatica: stenosi della mitrale – Non reumatica: stenosi dell’aorta, rigurgito mitrale Pericardite Tumori cardiaci Sick sinus syndrome Cardiomiopatia – Ipertrofica – Idiopatica dilatativa Chirurgia post bypass coronarico

9 Fibrillazione atriale: cause non cardiache Polmonare Metabolica – Ipertiroidismo – Disordine elettrolitico Tossica: alcol (‘holiday heart’ syndrome)

10 Ageing Hypertension Symptomatic heart failure Tachycardiomyopathy Valvular heart disease Cardiomyopathies Atrial septal defect Other congenital heart disease Thyroid dysfunction Obesity Diabetes mellitus Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Sleep apnea Chronic renal disease Alcohol abuse Exercise Local or systemic inflammation ACID REFLUX DISEASE

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12 Gastroesophageal reflux disease or acid reflux disease is the most common gastrointestinal diagnosis recorded during visits to outpatien clinics

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14 The potential mechanism of GERD-induced AF

15 REFLUX DISEASE INFLAMMATIONAUTOIMMUNE Afferent-efferent reflux mechanism with cerebral representation of cardiac rhythm Local pericarditis myocarditis Vagal nerves, peripheral nerves Inflammatory mediators- cytokines and interleukins Autoantibodies against myosin chains ATRIAL FIBRILLATION Sympatho-vagal imbalance

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17 Relationship between the esophagus and the left atrium. A: posterior-anterior aspect of the left atrium. B: Right anterior oblique view Circulation 112(4), 459–464 (2005)

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19 Recurrent acid secretion induces mucosal inflammation and secretion of interleukin IL-1b and IL-6 These inflammatory cytokines play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AF.

20 INFLAMMATION AND ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

21 The human esophagus produces IL-6 and other inflammatory citokines

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23 Acid reflux causes a local inflammatory process that may alter the autonomic innervations of the esophageal mucosa, and may also penetrate the esophageal wall and affect the adjacent vagal nerves due to the close juxtaposition of the esophagus and atria, especially the left atrium, where most triggers associated with atrial fibrillation have been described, affecting myelination and thus propagation of stimuli. Inflammation of the esophagegal mucosa affects local receptors that may induce afferent-efferent reflex mechanisms of the cardiac rhythm which can lead to secondary stimulation of the vagal nerves inducing AF.

24 AUTONOMIC SYSTEM AND ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

25 GERD Autoantibodies

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27 Hiatal hernia is a condition in which parts of the abdominal contents, mainly the GEJ and the stomach, are proximally displaced above the diaphram through the esophageal hiatus into the mediastinum. Hiatal hernia (10% in patients younger than 40 years to 70% in patients older than 70 years) may predispose to GERD or worsen existing GERD in a few individuals

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29 Atrial arrhythmias may be induced by a mechanical effect on the left atrial wall that is related to the passage of food A large hiatal hernia may also cause compression of the left atrium and may result in an area of relative ischemia and anatomical block resulting in reentry and arrhythmias Possible mechanisms are :

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31 Reflux esophagitis in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: results of a pilot study N° of patientsMethodology Results Conclusion Weilg et al, 2003

32 Thirty-two patients (13 women and 19 men, age years) with a combination of dysrhytmias and GERD, and 9 patients (5 women and 4 men, age years) with GERD only underwent simultaneous 24-hours pH and ECG monitoring Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability was obtained woth both low-frequency (LF) (symptathetic modulation) and high-frequency (HF) (vagal modulation) components. Hourly mean esophageal pH and LF/HF ratio (esophagus-heart) were correlated. A 3-month regimen of esomeprazole 40 mg/day was prescrived. In 18 patients with dysrhythmias and in none with GERD only, a significant correlation between esophageal pH and LF/HF ratio was observed. A significatn reduction of cardiac symptoms after PPI therapy was observed only in these patients (13/16 vs 4/11, p<0.01)

33 The study concluded that there could be a subgroup of patients with heart dysrhythmias in whom esophageal acid stimulus elicited cardiac autonomic reflexes, and acid suppression in this subgroup may improve both GERD and cardiac symptoms. Although this study demonstrated a reduction or disappearance of the dysrhythmias in patients with a cardiac response to esophageal acid exposure, it had some limitations.

34 N° of patients

35 Methodology ResultsConclusion Relationship between atrial fibrillation and gastroesophageal reflux disease: multicenter questionnaire survey Shimazu et al, 2011

36 Pulmonary veins isolation: pathophysiology M. Gulizia et al “Diagnosi e terapia del Flutter e della Fibrillazione atriale” 2009

37 European Heart Journal (2010) 31, 2369–2429 Choice between ablation and antiarrhythmic drug therapy for patients with and without structural heart disease

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42 40%37%29%

43 87%81%63%

44 Major Complications of Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation Circ J 2010; 74: 1972 – 1977

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50 The association between AF and GERD is still debated, predominantly because of shared confounding factors such as obesity, diabetes and sleep apnea. However, there is a mounting body of evidence that suggests an association between the two; therefore, a large randomized clinical trial is warranted. Currently, the most likely potential mechanism for GERD-induced AF is local release of cytokines secondary to esophageal injury, which creates a proarrhythmogenic environment. Perhaps the most compelling evidence that supports this association is that proton pump inhibitors seem to reduce the incidence and the duration of AF. CONCLUSION 1

51 At present, few clinicians outside the field of cardiac electrophysiology and gastroenterology are aware of the possible association of GERD, hiatal hernia and AF. As more patients with these disorders are treated and studied, our insights into the pathogenesis will be elucidated. It will be interesting to see whether AF causes GERD reciprocally, thus creating a cycle. Increasing awareness that GERD and/or hiatal hernia may be independent risk factors for AF may result in physicians being more aggressive in treating patients with proton pump inhibitors and hiatal hernia repair, since both of these therapies have shown a reduction in the incidence and duration of AF. CONCLUSION 2


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