D: Un Programma di AS è alla portata di tutti i Centri Ospedalieri ? Risposta: E’ alla portata della maggior parte dei centri Ospedalieri che hanno la possibilità di controllare i pazienti periodicamente e di eseguire biopsie prostatiche in tempi adeguati. L’approccio multidisciplinare dovrebbe essere una priorità
In cosa un programma di AS differisce da un programma di WW ?
D: In cosa Differisce un programma di AS da un programma di WW ? Risposta Un programma di AS prevede l’attento e periodico monitoraggio del paziente (ogni 6 mesi con PSA) e controllo della prostata con biopsia ogni 1-2 anni. Un programma di WW non prevede controlli periodici e tratta il paziente alla presenza di eventuali sintomi.
Active Surveillance It is not a strategy for everyone with low risk PC but should be one option or probably the first option. It is not a passive approach The primary goal is not to decrease overtreatment but to maximize the quality of life on an individual basis
Active Surveillance One should not treat PC as early as possible but as late as possible while still curable with low morbidity Overtreatment is not only associated to negative impact on Quality of Life but is also very costly
Side-effects from treatment Permanent side-effects from treatment are common and results in lowered quality of life!! Side-effects are significantly lower if treated by the most skilful surgeons in high volume centers, but how is it on an average?
Patient Selection For AS Variable, according to different International protocols: 1-2 core of Pca Gleason score 3+3 < 15% in the core at standard biopsy Different Methods of diagnosis: If we use standard (12 cores Biopsy) we miss about 30-35% of significant cancer (Gleason score 7). This was studied by a group who performed Template biopsy in patients on AS selected with standard biopsy
Selecting Patients For AS Multiparametric MRI (3 Tesla) with targeted biopsy will be the future (US Fusion) The standard in 2013 for diagnosis and patient selection AS is Template biopsy
60 % of all screen-detected cancers were of low risk
Failure rate measured as tumor recurrence after active treatment (PSA relapse or hormonal treatment)
What is the problem with AS Close and life long FU contribute to stigmatise the patient Knowing having PC may cause psychological trauma which in certain individuals may burden the quality of life more than side effects from treatment We have no validated trigger points for switching to active treatment Treating men after progression may cause more side- effects than treating men early
Conclusions Low risk PC is low risk, but be careful some are falsely staged, early re-evaluation!! The overwhelming majority of men with low risk PC will never develop symptoms and will die from other causes AS with delayed active treatment in those who need seem to be as effective as treating all actively from start Existing active treatments that are evidence based are associated with side-effects that will considerably affect quality of life in many patients Surveillance will maximise quality of life and reduce costs
Future Goals Find strategies to avoid diagnosing insignificant low risk PC Better screening tools for detecting biologically significant cancers Biopsy men more selectively and change from systematic to imaging guided biopsies
What is the risk with low risk PC? Rider et al Eur Urol 2012 Popiolek et al Eur Urol 2012 Klotz et al JCO 2010 Godtman et al Eur Urol 2012 To undertreat patients who will progress and develop metastatic disease
Pro Surveillance Jonas Hugosson Dept of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborgs Universitet Sweden